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常用医疗术语  发帖心情 Post By:2015/12/19 9:31:02 [只看该作者]

 

1.外科医生(Surgeon):

1) General surgery 普通外科 :
a) Cardiothoracic surgery 心胸肺外科
b) Colorectal surgery 结肠直肠外科
c) Pediatric surgery 小儿外科
d) Plastic surgery 整形手术
e) Vascular surgery 血管外科
f) Trauma surgery 创伤外科
g) Breast surgery 乳腺外科 
h) Surgical Oncology 肿瘤外科
i)Endocrine surgery 内分泌外科
j) Dermatological Surgery 皮肤科手术

2) Otolaryngology 耳鼻喉科
3) Oral and maxillofacial surgery 口腔颌面外科
4) Orthopaedic surgery 矫形外科
5) Neurosurgery 神经外科 
6) Ophthalmology 眼科
7) Podiatric surgery 足外科
8) Urology 泌尿外科 
......
(注:与外科医生密切配合的是Anesthesiologist 麻醉师。In the United States, anesthesiologists are physicians (MD or DO) who have chosen to specialize in anesthesiology。当然有的时候有Nurse Anesthetist或Anesthesiologist's Assistants来担负/协助麻醉。他们的工作十分重要。想一想,总要把病人麻倒了,外科医生的牛刀才能上啊!)

2.专科医生:
Specialist  Specialty  Focus
Anesthesiologist 麻醉师  Anesthesia  The administration of drugs to dull sensation or awareness.
Cardiologist 心脏科医生  Cardiology  Disease of the cardiovascular system . The field is commonly divided into subdisciplines dealing with congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology.
Dermatologist 皮肤科医生  Dermatology  Skin and its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands etc).
Emergency MD 急诊医生  Emergency medicine  The initial management of emergent medical conditions, often in hospital emergency departments or the field.
Endocrinologist 内分泌科医生  Endocrinology  The endocrine system (i.e. endocrine glands and hormones ) and its diseases, including diabetes and thyroid diseases.
Gastroenterologist 胃肠科医师  Gastroenterology  The alimentary tract.
Geriatrician 老年病科医师  Geriatrics  Elderly patients.
Hematologist 血液学家  Hematology  The Blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. Hematology is grouped with oncology in the US.
Hepatologist 肝脏病学家  Hepatology  The liver and biliary tract, usually a part of gastroenterology.
Infectious disease MD 传染病学家  Infectious disease  Diseases caused by biologicalagents
Intensive care medicine MD 重症监护专家  Intensive care medicine  Life support and management of critically ill patients, often in an ICU.
Nephrologist 肾脏专科医师  Nephrology  Kidney disease.
Neurologist 神经科医师  Neurology  Diseases involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems.
Obstetrician and Gynecologist 妇产科医师  Obstetrics and gynecology  Female reproductive organs, pregnancy, and childbirth.
Oncologist 肿瘤学家/ 肿瘤科医师  Oncology  Cancer and other malignant diseases, often grouped with hematology.
Ophthalmologist 眼科医师  Ophthalmology  Deal with the diseases and surgery of the visual pathways, including the eye, hairs and areas surrounding the eye, such as the lacrimal system and eyelids.
Pain Specialist 痛症专科医师  Pain Management  A new specialty of medicine that deals with the evaluation and treatment of people with acute or chronic pain. Anesthesiologists, neurologists, neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons most frequently specialize in pain management. Some physiatrists also specialize in pain management.
Palliative care MD 舒缓疗法专家  Palliative care  A relatively modern branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain and symptom relief and emotional support in patients with terminal illnesses including cancer and heart failure.
Pathologist 病理学家  Pathology  Understanding disease through examination of molecules, cells, tissues and organs. The term encompasses both the medical specialty which uses tissues and body fluids to obtain clinically useful information, as well as the related scientific study of disease processes.
Pediatrician 儿科医师  Pediatrics  Deal with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents (from newborn to age 16-21, depending on the country).
Physical Therapist or Physical Therapy Physician 理疗师(受训过的专家,有的拥有doctorate degree.)  Physical Therapy  Provide treatment to individuals to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and function throughout life. This includes providing treatment in circumstances where movement and function are threatened by aging, injury, disease or environmental factors.
Proctologist 肛肠科医师  Proctology  Disease in the rectum, anus, and colon.
Psychiatrist 精神病科医师  Psychiatry  The bio-psycho-social study of the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cognitive, perceptual, emotional and behavioraldisorders. Related non-medical fields include psychotherapy and clinical psychology.
Pulmonologist 肺科医师  Pulmonology  The lungs and respiratory system. Pulmonology is generally considered a branch of internal medicine, although it is closely related to intensive care medicine when dealing with patients requiring mechanical ventilation.
Radiologist 放射科医师  Radiology  The use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis. X-rays, etc.
Rheumatologist 风湿病科医师  Rheumatology  Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases of the joints and other organ systems, such as arthritis and other rheumatic diseases.
Wound Care Specialist伤口医治专家  Wound Care  Provide specialized care for complex wounds which are often difficult to treat and require the attention of skilled professionals.

另外,还有Clinical Dietitians(临床营养学专家/营养师)、Speech Therapists(言语治疗师)及不能列入专科医生里的各类的有处方权的Physician's Assistants(医生助理)和Nurse Practitioners(硕士学位以上的有专门执照的护士)。他们协助医生为你服务。


美国医疗机构评审联合委员会JCAHO (the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations)最早宣布疼痛应作为一个重要的体征。美国疼痛学会(American Pain Society)随后提出“疼痛:第五生命体征”,目的是要提高医护人员对疼痛治疗的认识。退伍军人卫生管理局VHA (Veterans Health Administration )和世界卫生组织等机构也十分重视疼痛的控制。虽然仍有人质疑它的客观与可*性,但现在疼痛已被普遍地列为体温、呼吸、脉搏、血压四大生命体征之外的第五大体征(the Fifth Vital Sign)。

为了能比较准确地评价疼痛的性质、特点、强度和伴随症状,医护人员需要病人提供以下资料:
1.疼痛部位(The location of the pain):准确地指出疼痛在哪里。
以下是各部位的中英文对照:
head(头)(forehead 前额,脑门);eyes(眼);ears(耳);nose(鼻);mouth(口);throat(喉);
cheek(脸颊);neck(颈, 脖子);chest(胸);sternum(胸骨);ribs(肋骨);breast(乳房);
shoulder(肩);back(背)(upper back 背的上部;lower back 背的下部);spine(脊柱);
elbow(肘);armpit(腋下,腋窝);arm(手臂)(upper arm 上臂;lower arm/forearm 前臂 );wrist(手腕,腕关节);
hand(手);palm(手掌);thumb(大拇指);fingers(手指)(index finger 食指;middle finger 中指;ring finger 无名指;pinky finger=little finger 小指);
stomach(胃);abdomen(腹部);belly button or umbilicus(肚脐);liver area(肝区);flank(侧胁部)(肾区kidney area);kidney(肾 );urinary tract(尿路);
waist(腰);hip(髋骨); pelvis (骨盆);groin (腹股沟); perineum(会阴);vagina(阴道);penis(阴茎);scrotum(阴囊); buttocks(臀,或俗称bottom);anus(肛门);rectum(直肠);hemorrhoid(痔疮  -它不是人的生理部位,是病灶,但常引起疼痛与不适,列在这里可以向医生详细描述);
thigh(大腿);knee(膝, 膝盖);leg(腿);calf(腓,小腿肚);shank(shin)(胫,小腿前部);ankle(踝,踝关节) ;feet(脚)(left foot 左脚; right foot 右脚);sole(脚掌,脚底);heel(足跟;踵部,脚后跟);arch(脚弓); toes(脚趾)(big toe 大脚趾,index toe 第二脚趾,middle toe 中脚趾,fouth toe 第四脚趾,pinky toe=little toe 小脚趾)。

2.疼痛的规律:持续时间(duration)和发生的频繁(frequency )(如 continuous 连续的,intermittent 间断的,all the time 一直不停地痛)及规律性(如餐后痛,餐前痛,晨起痛等)。
3.疼痛的强度(intensity):分轻微(mild,), 中等程度(moderate),很痛(intense),剧痛(severe)等。
1971年加拿大神经生理学家麦尔扎克(Ronald Melzack)和另外一名研究者Torgerson 首先建立了一种说明疼痛性质强度的评价方法,被称为麦-吉痛觉调查表(McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ))。它共分20组问题,每一组里有多个相近的词语来表达疼痛,但只需选一个对你的疼痛最贴切的词来计分。由于调查项目繁多,表中词类比较抽象,有时病人难以理解准确的意涵,虽然它曾被认为是可*且有效的评痛方法,但却被简便易行的视觉模拟评分法(VAS =Visual analog scale)和现今改进的数字疼痛量表(简称痛尺NRS=Numeric Rating Scale)所取代了。

这里介绍医院常用的两个“痛尺”:痛尺是一长约10厘米的标尺。尺面上标有10个刻度,从0至10。0分表示没有疼痛。3分以下说明疼痛并不严重,不太会影响你的睡眠;7分以上将疼痛难忍,极需要强效镇痛剂。
1) the Wong-Baker FACES scale (for children):让孩子指着脸的图形来判断孩子的疼痛强度。笑脸表示无痛,哭的脸表示极痛。
2) Pain scale for adult(成年人用的痛尺):
4.疼痛的性质(Quality of the pain ):
有钝痛、锐痛、灼热痛、胀痛、绞痛、隐痛、剧痛、奇痛等描述。
以下是常见疼痛的中英对照说法:
backache 背痛;earache 耳痛;headache 头痛;stomachache 胃痛;toothache(牙痛);ache 疼痛(返指);hurt 疼痛(返指);
beating 跳痛(同义词/近义词有:flickering;pulsing;quivering;throbbing);biting 虫咬痛;bloating(胃肠胀痛);boring 钻痛(近义词有:drilling);burning 烧灼痛(如胃烧灼感);bursting 胀痛;
colicky 绞痛(如胃肠绞痛);cramp 痉挛(如胃肠痛或脚抽筋);crushing 压痛(如心脏病);cutting 切割痛;
distending 胀痛;dragging 牵拉痛;drawing 抽吸痛;dull 钝痛/隐痛;
gnawing 持续性剧痛;griping 肠绞痛(同义词有:colicky ;cramp); gripping 夹痛;
heavy 沉重的; Knife-like 刀割痛;migraine 偏头痛;numb 麻木;
penetrating 穿透性痛;piercing 刺痛;pinching 扎痛;pin and needles 针刺痛;prickling 针刺痛;pressing 压痛(同义词有:crushing;squeezing);
scalding 烧灼痛(同义词有:burning );serious pain/severe pain 严重疼痛;sharp 锐痛;shooting 击痛(近义词有:jumping;flashing);sickening 令人作呕/难受的痛;smarting 剧烈疼痛;sore 酸痛;sore throat 喉咙痛;stitch 剧痛;sting 蛰痛;
pain caused by sprain 扭伤痛;squeezing 压痛(同义词有:pressing;crushing);suffocating 令人窒息的;
tearing 撕裂痛;tender 触痛;throbbing 跳痛(如头痛);tightness 紧,闷,透不过气(如心脏病);tingling 麻刺痛;twinge 刺痛;
acute /chronic 急/慢性 constant 持续地痛;intermittent 间断地痛; localized pain 局部痛;radiating or spreading 放射或扩散性痛;mild pain 较轻的痛 superficial pain 浅表的痛; deep seated 深部的痛;等等......
你不记得正确的用词也没关系,只要你描述的越详细越具体就行。如:It feels like an electric shock or a knife cutting me. 聪明的医生会明白你的意思的。

5.什么使疼痛缓解或加剧?
体动(如抬高手臂),触摸/压迫,饱食后/饥饿时,风吹寒冷,喝水/酒,其它等等使疼痛加剧;
安静/休息,音乐或其它转移注意力的方法,冷/热敷等等使疼痛缓解。


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